AskDefine | Define chemist

Dictionary Definition

chemist

Noun

1 a scientist who specializes in chemistry
2 a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs [syn: pharmacist, druggist, apothecary, pill pusher, pill roller]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

First attested 1562; from etyl fr chimiste, from modern etyl la chimista for earlier alchimista, from etyl ar الكيمياء, from article al- + χυμεία, from χύμα, from χυμός, from χέω.

Pronunciation

  • , /ˈkɛmɪst/, /'kEmIst/

Noun

  1. An alchemist.
  2. A person whose occupation specializes in the science of chemistry, especially at a professional level.
  3. In the context of "chiefly|UK}} A pharmacist.

Extensive Definition

this a scientific profession A chemist is a scientist trained in the science of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its small-scale properties such as density and acidity instead of large-scale properties like size and shape. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties.
Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition, and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful naturally occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists. Chemical engineers are concerned with the physical processes necessary to carry out industrial reactions (heating, cooling, mixing, diffusion etc) and to separate and purify the products, and work with industrial chemists on the development of new processes.

History

The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind. It was fire that led to the discovery of iron and glass. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold. This led to the protoscience called Alchemy. The word chemist is derived from the New Latin noun chimista, an abbreviation of alchimista (alchemist). Alchemists discovered many chemical processes that led to the development of modern chemistry. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of Conservation of mass in 1783. The discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleyev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery in the past 100 years.

Education

Jobs for chemists usually require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions, especially those in research, require a Ph.D. Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry, partly because chemistry is also known as "the central science", thus chemists ought to have an all-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry and physical chemistry. Postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions.

Employment

The three major employers of chemists are academic institutions, industry, especially the chemical industry and the pharmaceutical industry, and government laboratories.
Chemistry typically is divided into several major sub-disciplines. There are also several main cross-disciplinary and more specialized fields of chemistry. There is a great deal of overlap between different branches of chemistry, as well as with other scientific fields such as biology, medicine, physics, and several engineering disciplines.
  • Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Analytical chemistry incorporates standardized experimental methods in chemistry. These methods may be used in all subdisciplines of chemistry, excluding purely theoretical chemistry.
  • Inorganic chemistry is the study of the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. The distinction between organic and inorganic disciplines is not absolute and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry. Inorganic chemistry is also the study of atomic and molecular structure and bonding.
  • Medicinal chemistry is the science involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. Medicinal chemistry involves the identification, synthesis and development of new chemical entities suitable for therapeutic use. It also includes the study of existing drugs, their biological properties, and their quantitative structure-activity relationships.
  • Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, mechanisms, and chemical reaction of organic compounds.
  • Physical chemistry is the study of the physical fundamental basis of chemical systems and processes. In particular, the energetics and dynamics of such systems and processes are of interest to physical chemists. Important areas of study include chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, and spectroscopy. Physical chemistry has large overlap with theoretical chemistry and molecular physics. Physical chemistry involves the use of calculus in deriving equations.

References

chemist in Bulgarian: Химик
chemist in Czech: Chemik
chemist in Welsh: Cemegydd
chemist in German: Chemiker
chemist in Esperanto: Kemiisto
chemist in French: Chimiste
chemist in Hebrew: כימאי
chemist in Latin: Chemicus
chemist in Hungarian: Vegyész
chemist in Japanese: 化学者
chemist in Simple English: Chemist
chemist in Slovenian: Kemik
chemist in Thai: นักเคมี
chemist in Vietnamese: Nhà hóa học
chemist in Yiddish: כעמיקער
chemist in Contenese: 化學家
chemist in Chinese: 化学家

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

antique store, apothecary, automobile showroom, bookstore, bootery, candy store, cigar store, clothiers, clothing store, confectionery, dispensary, dispensatory, dispenser, dress shop, druggist, drugstore, dry goods store, florists, fur salon, furniture store, gallipot, gift shop, haberdashery, hardware store, hat shop, hobby shop, ironmongery, jewelers, jewelry store, leather goods store, liquor store, luggage shop, milliners, novelty shop, package store, pharmaceutist, pharmacist, pharmacy, posologist, saddlery, schlock house, schlock shop, secondhand shop, secondhand store, shoe store, smoke shop, specialty shop, sporting goods store, stationers, stationery store, sweater shop, sweet shop, thrift shop, tobacco store, tobacconists, toy shop, trimming store, used-car lot
Privacy Policy, About Us, Terms and Conditions, Contact Us
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
Material from Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Dict
Valid HTML 4.01 Strict, Valid CSS Level 2.1